“Complexity suggests situations that are uncertain and unpredictable, ill-structured in time and/or space, and involves tangles between entities that result in an unordered complicated uncertain state or condition. This idea of tangle implies a lack of knowledge concerning the visible or hidden elements of an observed effect that constitutes an object, and their structural and process relationships. The known and unknown elements and their relationships may be together responsible for the manifestation of an observed effect (as an object), and it is through the identification of the general relationships involved that unknown elements may perhaps be uncovered.”

from Metacybernetics: Towards a General Theory of HigherOrder Cybernetics by Maurice Yolles

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